Their state as at more temperatures ice easier has a great influence on the speed of a current of ice in glaciers. Warm glaciers move the cold. Heat which is allocated at a glacier also accelerates the movement.
In the nature there are a lot of different types of ice. A subject of this work — glaciers. What it is necessary to understand as it ? The glacier — is the mass of land ice of mainly atmospheric origin, the independent movement in a of the deformations caused by a gravity.
Glaciers are a product of a of a relief and climate. They mainly from snow, of the atmosphere, but can consist and of water ice (a, ice shelf of ). Water ice can be present and at mountain glaciers as a result of a of thawed and rain snow on their, in cracks and emptiness in a glacier, but the main source their — a firm atmospheric precipitation.
Height of the majority of islands does not 500 m above sea-level, and only in part of the archipelago it is more. The highest point of a radical relief on the lake Winer-Neyshtadt — 620 m, a glacial surface — on Wilczek Land — 735 m.
The top horizons of glacial thickness within a cold firnovy zone partial warming up due to repeated freezing of thawed snow and therefore temperature is higher here, than in the zone of ice food located hypsometric below. So, on on Chyurlenis's dome (the lake Guker within a cold firnovy zone of a of ice at a depth of 9 m and kept more steady — 3 °, and in a zone of food at the same levels was -10 °.
O. Ushakova is in the Northern ocean between Franz Joseph Land and Severnaya Zemlya. It is entirely covered with ice — radical breeds to a do not come to a surface. On seismosounding, the glacial cover of the island lies on the low from radical breeds which highest parts rise a little more than 50 m above sea-level, and in a number of places the bed of a glacier is located below sea-level.
Except fluctuations of glaciers, climate changes ( fluctuations), also fluctuations of glaciers, not stationarity of communications in the glacier are possible. If for any reasons in a glacier excess of food over an expense takes place and ice a long time in glacier upper courses, growth of tension in glacial thickness can cause sharp increase in speed
Islands of the archipelago are put in by the sedimentary breeds of mesozoic age (limestones, sandstones, slates, etc.) blocked by of basalts. Basalts as more resistant to aeration, reserve underlying thicknesses, causing pla-toobrazny character of a relief of. Quarternary deposits having appeared -
On supervision on Toll's dome, by the beginning of thawing 50 — 55 cm of snow collect at the average density of 0,33 g/cm3, the part of snow from a dome is blown off by winds. The thawing interrupted by frosts and snowfalls proceeds since the beginning of July until the end of August and covers a dome completely. On of a dome the numerous flow down
The form and the sizes of glaciers can be the most different. Distinguish two groups of glaciers: mountain, the form and which movement mainly by a relief them receptacles and a bed bias, and glacial covers and domes in which ice so thick that blocks all of a subglacial relief, and a current of ice
Relief of islands mainly platoobrazny, passing on islands in pologokholmisty and with ostantsovy. The most sublime sites of islands are covered with glaciers. Tops of ice domes rise to 900 — 950 m on islands the Bolshevik and Revolution and to 780 m by the lake.